Later this year, NIST expects to release a draft of the Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards (“Framework”) document for a formal 60-day public comment period and the final version of the document is planned for publication in the first half of 2014. However, those attending the SGIP Inaugural Meeting received an advanced look at the new Framework.
NIST says the smart grid will ultimately require hundreds of standards. To prioritize its work, NIST chose to focus on seven key functionalities plus cybersecurity and network communications. Together, they create nine priority areas:
- Demand response and consumer energy efficiency: Provide mechanisms and incentives for utilities, business, industrial and residential customers to modify energy use during times of peak demand or when power reliability is at risk. Demand response is necessary for optimizing the balance of power supply and demand.
- Wide-area situational awareness: Utilizes monitoring and display of power-system components and performance across interconnections and over large geographic areas in near real-time. The goals of situational awareness are to understand and ultimately optimize the management of power-network components, behavior and performance, as well as to anticipate, prevent, or respond to problems before disruptions arise.
- Distributed Energy Resources (DER): Covers generation and/or electric storage systems that are interconnected with distribution systems, including devices that reside on a customer premise, “behind the meter.” DER systems utilize a wide range of generation and storage technologies such as renewable energy, combined heat and power generators (CHP), fixed battery storage and electric vehicles with bi-directional chargers.
- Energy Storage: Means of storing energy, directly or indirectly. The most common bulk energy storage technology used today is pumped hydroelectric storage technology. New storage capabilities — especially for distributed storage — would benefit the entire grid, from generation to end use.
- Electric transportation: Refers primarily to enabling large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Electric transportation could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, increase use of renewable sources of energy, provide electric energy storage to ameliorate peak-load demands, and dramatically reduce the nation’s carbon footprint.
- Network communications: Refers to a variety of public and private communication networks, both wired and wireless, that will be used for smart grid domains and subdomains. An interface is a point where two systems need to exchange data with each other. Effective communication and coordination occurs when each of the systems understand and can respond to the data provided by the other system, even if the internal workings of the system are quite different.
- Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI): Provides near real-time monitoring of power usage. AMI consists of the communications hardware and software, and the associated system and data management software, that together create a two-way network between advanced meters and utility business systems, enabling collection and distribution of information to customers and other parties, such as the competitive retail supplier or the utility itself.
- Distribution grid management: Focuses on maximizing performance of feeders, transformers and other components of networked distribution systems and integrating them with transmission systems and customer operations. As smart grid capabilities such as AMI and demand response are developed, and as large numbers of distributed energy resources and PEVs are deployed, the automation of distribution systems becomes increasingly more important to the efficient and reliable operation of the overall power system.
- Cybersecurity: Encompasses measures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the electronic information communication systems and the control systems necessary for the management, operation and protection of the smart grid’s energy, information technology and telecommunications infrastructures.
Given the importance and magnitude of the smart grid, at the most basic level just about everyone you know is a stakeholder. According to NIST, the stakeholder groups who may find Framework 3.0 most useful include:
- Utilities and suppliers concerned with how best to understand and implement the smart grid (especially Chapters 4, 5 and 6);
- Testing laboratories and certification organizations (especially Chapter 7);
- Academia (especially Section 5.1 and Chapter 8); and
- Regulators (especially Chapters 1, 4, and 6, and also Section 3.5).